ClearAg

Soil Conditions APIs

Utilizing Iteris’ proprietary Land Surface Modeling, ClearAg Soil Conditions APIs provide users with soil moisture and temperature at varying depths.

Soil Conditions

last updated 11/7/18

This bundle provides users with soil moisture and temperature data at varying depths as estimated by Iteris' proprietary Land Surface Modeling. This bundle is best-suited for users who only need generalized information on unirrigated land, lacking user-provided specific soil texture class information and thus relying on various public sources of geospatial soil characteristics. All of these endpoints provide data for any location in the world. Hourly conditions are available for any period beginning January 1 of the previous calendar year through nine days into the future. Daily values are available for any period beginning January 1, 1980 through nine days into the future. Note that daily values represent summaries of conditions spanning midnight to midnight local time for the requested location timezone.

Multiple data center regions are available to meet users’ legal and performance needs. Currently, data centers exist within the United States (ag.us.clearapis.com) and the European Union (ag.eu.clearapis.com). Data resolution and availability vary by region, and each region requires a unique set of credentials. Please contact your account representative for account creation or data coverage information.

Please note that API responses are currently only provided in English.

Iteris requires the use of https when working within the ClearAg APIs.

Additional API information, such as details on supported unit sets and API behavior, is available in the Appendix.

Hourly Soil - v1.1

Through the Hourly Soil endpoint, users have the ability to obtain hourly soil temperature and moisture data valid for a user-defined time range and location. These values not only give temperature and moisture levels, but also show how they compare to soil climatology at the chosen location and time.

The Hourly Soil endpoint’s dataset is valid from the beginning of the previous year and up to 240 hours into the future, and is available globally.

URL Description

https://ag.us.clearapis.com/v1.1/hourly/soil?app_id={string}&app_key={string}
&location={lat, lon coordinates}&start={timestamp}&end={timestamp}&unitcode={string}

Request Parameters

Parameter Type Required Description

app_id

string

yes

API ID provided by Iteris.

app_key

string

yes

API key provided by Iteris.

start

timestamp

yes

Start time of the data returned. Please refer to the Epoch/Unix Timestamp section of the Appendix for Iteris' definition of Epoch/Unix timestamp.

end

timestamp

yes

End time of the data returned. Please refer to the Epoch/Unix Timestamp section of the Appendix for Iteris' definition of Epoch/Unix timestamp.

location

lat, lon coordinates

yes

User-provided latitude and longitude coordinates in decimal degrees. Please verify that latitude/longitude coordinates are over soil representative of your field. Users are allowed a maximum of five coordinates,1 formatted as "&location=[(<lat_1>,<lon_1>),(<lat_2>,<lon_2>)]."

unitcode

string

no

Unit conversion set to be used. Default is "us-std." Valid values are "us-std," "si-std," "us-std-precise," and "si-std-precise." Values of "us-std-precise" and "si-std-precise" round output values to six decimal places.

1 Additional coordinates are not counted against a client’s account.

Response Object (JSON)

The response may vary based on unit code selected.

Field Description

abs_scaled_soil_moisture_ 0to10cm

Moisture content of the layer between the surface and the 10-cm depth, relative to saturation and "wilting point" thresholds for the soil type at the chosen location. Valid values range from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates an estimated moisture level at the wilting point, and 1 indicates complete saturation. Therefore, values near 0 (1) indicate very dry (very wet) soils at the chosen location and time.

abs_scaled_soil_moisture_ 0to200cm

Moisture content of the layer between the surface and the 200-cm depth, relative to saturation and "wilting point" thresholds for the soil type at the chosen location. Valid values range from 0 to 1.

normalized_soil_moisture_ 0to10cm

Provides an estimate of how the soil moisture level compares with the location’s climatological average value in the layer between the surface and the 10-cm depth. Positive values indicate above-normal moisture content, negative values indicate below-normal moisture content, and value magnitudes denote how much they vary from normal in this layer. For example, a value of 0.5 (-0.5) indicates that the moisture level at the indicated time and location is 0.5 standard deviations above (below) the normal soil moisture level for the same layer, location, and time.

normalized_soil_moisture_ 0to200cm

Provides an estimate of how the soil moisture level compares with the location’s climatological average value in the layer between the surface and the 200-cm depth. Positive values indicate above-normal moisture content, negative values indicate below-normal moisture content, and value magnitudes denote how much they vary from normal in this layer.

scaled_soil_moisture_0to10cm

Moisture content of the layer between the surface and the 10-cm depth, relative to the location’s soil moisture climatology. Valid values range from 0 to 1, where 0 means that the estimated moisture level is the lowest, 0.5 means the level is at the average, and 1 means the level is the highest it has historically been at the chosen location and day of year. Therefore, values less than (greater than) 0.5 indicate drier (wetter) than normal conditions, and the degree of deviation from normal is represented by how close values come to either 0 or 1.

scaled_soil_moisture_ 0to200cm

Moisture content of the layer between the surface and the 200-cm depth, relative to the location’s soil moisture climatology. Valid values range from 0 to 1.

soil_moisture_0to10cm

Total moisture content of the layer between the surface and the 10-cm depth.

soil_moisture_0to200cm

Total moisture content of the layer between the surface and the 200-cm depth.

soil_temp_0to10cm

Average temperature of the layer between the surface and the 10-cm depth.

valid_time_end

Valid end time (Epoch time) for the hourly period. Please refer to the Epoch/Unix Timestamp section of the Appendix for Iteris' definition of Epoch/Unix timestamp.

valid_time_start

Valid start time (Epoch time) for the hourly period. Please refer to the Epoch/Unix Timestamp section of the Appendix for Iteris' definition of Epoch/Unix timestamp.

Example Request

https://ag.us.clearapis.com/v1.1/hourly/soil?app_id=123&app_key=321
&location=46.77,-100.75&start=1341532800&end=1341619200

Example Response

{
    "46.77,-100.75":{
        "hourly_historical_soil:1341532800":{
            "abs_scaled_soil_moisture_ 0to10cm":{
                "unit":"n/a",
                "value":"0.07"
            }
            "abs_scaled_soil_moisture_ 0to200cm":{
                "unit":"n/a",
                "value":"0.27"
            }
            "normalized_soil_moisture_0to10cm":{
                "unit":"n/a",
                "value":-2.2
            },
            "normalized_soil_moisture_0to200cm":{
                "unit":"n/a",
                "value":-1.13
            },
            "scaled_soil_moisture_0to10cm":{
                "unit":"n/a",
                "value":0.0
            },
            "scaled_soil_moisture_0to200cm":{
                "unit":"n/a",
                "value":0.18
            },
            "soil_moisture_0to10cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.33
            },
            "soil_moisture_0to200cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":13.06
            },
            "soil_temp_0to10cm":{
                "unit":"F",
                "value":87.0
            },
            "valid_time_end":1341536400,
            "valid_time_start":1341532800
        },...
    }
}

Daily Soil - v1.1

Through the Daily Soil endpoint users can obtain daily soil temperature and moisture data valid for a user-defined time range and location. These values not only give estimates of actual temperature and moisture levels, but also show how they compare to soil climatology at the chosen location and time.

The Daily Soil endpoint’s dataset is valid from January 1, 1980 and up to 9 days into the future, and is available globally.

URL Description

https://ag.us.clearapis.com/v1.1/daily/soil?app_id={string}&app_key={string}
&location={lat, lon coordinates}&start={timestamp}&end={timestamp}&unitcode={string}

Request Parameters

Parameter Type Required Description

app_id

string

yes

API ID provided by Iteris.

app_key

string

yes

API key provided by Iteris.

start

timestamp

yes

Start time of the data returned. Please refer to the Epoch/Unix Timestamp section of the Appendix for Iteris' definition of Epoch/Unix timestamp.

end

timestamp

yes

End time of the data returned. Please refer to the Epoch/Unix Timestamp section of the Appendix for Iteris' definition of Epoch/Unix timestamp.

location

lat, lon coordinates

yes

User-provided latitude and longitude coordinates in decimal degrees. Please verify that latitude/longitude coordinates are over soil representative of your field. Users are allowed a maximum of five coordinates,1 formatted as "&location=[(<lat_1>,<lon_1>),(<lat_2>,<lon_2>)]."

unitcode

string

no

Unit conversion set to be used. Default is "us-std." Valid values are "us-std," "si-std," "us-std-precise," and "si-std-precise." Values of "us-std-precise" and "si-std-precise" round output values to six decimal places.

1 Additional coordinates are not counted against a client’s account.

Response Object (JSON)

The response may vary based on unit code selected.

Field Description

abs_scaled_soil_moisture_ 0to10cm

Moisture content of the layer between the surface and the 10-cm depth, relative to saturation and "wilting point" thresholds for the soil type at the chosen location. Valid values range from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates an estimated moisture level at the wilting point, and 1 indicates complete saturation. Therefore, values near 0 (1) indicate very dry (very wet) soils at the chosen location and time.

abs_scaled_soil_moisture_ 0to200cm

Moisture content of the layer between the surface and the 200-cm depth, relative to saturation and "wilting point" thresholds for the soil type at the chosen location. Valid values range from 0 to 1.

normalized_soil_moisture_ 0to10cm

Provides an estimate of how the soil moisture level compares with the location’s climatological average value in the layer between the surface and the 10-cm depth. Positive values indicate above-normal moisture content, negative values indicate below-normal moisture content, and value magnitudes denote how much they vary from normal in this layer. For example, a value of 0.5 (-0.5) indicates that the moisture level at the indicated time and location is 0.5 standard deviations above (below) the normal soil moisture level for the same layer, location, and time.

normalized_soil_moisture_ 0to200cm

Provides an estimate of how the soil moisture level compares with the location’s climatological average value in the layer between the surface and the 200-cm depth. Positive values indicate above-normal moisture content, negative values indicate below-normal moisture content, and value magnitudes denote how much they vary from normal in this layer.

scaled_soil_moisture_0to10cm

Moisture content of the layer between the surface and the 10-cm depth, relative to the location’s soil moisture climatology. Valid values range from 0 to 1, where 0 means that the estimated moisture level is the lowest, 0.5 means the level is at the average, and 1 means the level is the highest it has historically been at the chosen location and day of year. Therefore, values less than (greater than) 0.5 indicate drier (wetter) than normal conditions, and the degree of deviation from normal is represented by how close values come to either 0 or 1.

scaled_soil_moisture_ 0to200cm

Moisture content of the layer between the surface and the 200-cm depth, relative to the location’s soil moisture climatology. Valid values range from 0 to 1.

soil_moisture_0to10cm

24-hour average moisture content of the layer between the surface and the 10-cm depth.

soil_moisture_0to200cm

24-hour average moisture content of the layer between the surface and the 200-cm depth.

soil_temp_0to10cm

Average temperature of the layer between the surface and the 10-cm depth.

soil_temp_max_0to10cm

Maximum temperature of the layer between the surface and the 10-cm depth.

soil_temp_min_0to10cm

Minimum temperature of the layer between the surface and the 10-cm depth.

Example Request

https://ag.us.clearapis.com/v1.1/daily/soil?app_id=123&app_key=321
&location=46.77,-100.75&start=1341532800&end=1341619200

Example Response

{
    "46.77,-100.75":{
        "2012-07-06":{
            "abs_scaled_soil_moisture_ 0to10cm":{
                "unit":"n/a",
                "value":"0.3"
            }
            "abs_scaled_soil_moisture_ 0to200cm":{
                "unit":"n/a",
                "value":"0.28"
            },
            "normalized_soil_moisture_0to10cm":{
                "unit":"n/a",
                "value":0.18
            },
            "normalized_soil_moisture_0to200cm":{
                "unit":"n/a",
                "value":-0.89
            },
            "scaled_soil_moisture_0to10cm":{
                "unit":"n/a",
                "value":0.54
            },
            "scaled_soil_moisture_0to200cm":{
                "unit":"n/a",
                "value":0.25
            },
            "soil_moisture_0to10cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.7
            },
            "soil_moisture_0to200cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":13.54
            },
            "soil_temp_0to10cm":{
                "unit":"F",
                "value":69.0
           },
            "soil_temp_max_0to10cm":{
                "unit":"F",
                "value":76.0
           },
            "soil_temp_min_0to10cm":{
                "unit":"F",
                "value":69.0
            }
        }
    }
}

Daily Soil Moisture Flux - v1.0

The Daily Soil Moisture Flux endpoint provides up to 366 days of soil moisture flux data, indicating the amount of water expected to pass through multiple soil depths, via either downwards percolation or upwards as a result of capillary action.

Data are valid from midnight to 11:59 p.m. in the timezone of the location queried, and available globally from January 1, 1980 through up to 9 days into the future.

URL Description

https://ag.us.clearapis.com/v1.0/daily/soil/moistureflux?
app_id={string}&app_key={string}&start={timestamp}&end={timestamp}
&location={lat, lon coordinates}&unitcode={string}&net_flux

Request Parameters

Parameter Type Required Description

app_id

string

yes

API ID provided by Iteris.

app_key

string

yes

API key provided by Iteris.

start

timestamp

yes

Start time of the data returned. Please refer to the Epoch/Unix Timestamp section of the Appendix for Iteris' definition of Epoch/Unix timestamp.

end

timestamp

yes

End time of the data returned. Please refer to the Epoch/Unix Timestamp section of the Appendix for Iteris' definition of Epoch/Unix timestamp.

location

lat, lon coordinates

yes

User-provided latitude and longitude coordinates in decimal degrees. Please verify that latitude/longitude coordinates are over soil representative of your field. Users are allowed a maximum of five coordinates1, formatted as "&location=[(<lat_1>,<lon_1>),(<lat_2>,<lon_2>)]."

unitcode

string

no

Unit conversion set to be used. Default is "us-std." Valid values are "us-std," "si-std," "us-std-precise," and "si-std-precise." Values of "us-std-precise" and "si-std-precise" round output values to six decimal places.

net_flux

flag

no

Include negative (upward) daily moisture fluxes in calculation of flux accumulations. Default behavior is to ignore negative daily values in these calculations.

1 Additional coordinates are not counted against a client’s account.

Response Object (JSON)

Field Description

soil_moisture_accflux_100cm

Total amount of water passing through a depth of 100 cm in the soil column, accumulated from the beginning of the response.2

soil_moisture_accflux_10cm

Total amount of water passing through a depth of 10 cm in the soil column, accumulated from the beginning of the response.2

soil_moisture_accflux_200cm

Total amount of water passing through a depth of 200 cm in the soil column, accumulated from the beginning of the response.2

soil_moisture_accflux_20cm

Total amount of water passing through a depth of 20 cm in the soil column, accumulated from the beginning of the response.2

soil_moisture_accflux_2cm

Total amount of water passing through a depth of 2 cm in the soil column, accumulated from the beginning of the response.2

soil_moisture_accflux_40cm

Total amount of water passing through a depth of 40 cm in the soil column, accumulated from the beginning of the response.2

soil_moisture_accflux_5cm

Total amount of water passing through a depth of 5 cm in the soil column, accumulated from the beginning of the response.2

soil_moisture_accflux_70cm

Total amount of water passing through a depth of 70 cm in the soil column, accumulated from the beginning of the response.2

soil_moisture_accflux_sfc

Total amount of water infiltration at the soil surface, accumulated from the beginning of the response.2

soil_moisture_flux_100cm

Amount of water passing through a depth of 100 cm in the soil column.2

soil_moisture_flux_10cm

Amount of water passing through a depth of 10 cm in the soil column.2

soil_moisture_flux_200cm

Amount of water passing through a depth of 200 cm in the soil column.2

soil_moisture_flux_20cm

Amount of water passing through a depth of 20 cm in the soil column.2

soil_moisture_flux_2cm

Amount of water passing through a depth of 2 cm in the soil column.2

soil_moisture_flux_40cm

Amount of water passing through a depth of 40 cm in the soil column.2

soil_moisture_flux_5cm

Amount of water passing through a depth of 5 cm in the soil column.2

soil_moisture_flux_70cm

Amount of water passing through a depth of 70 cm in the soil column.2

soil_moisture_flux_sfc

Amount of water infiltration at the soil surface.2

2 Note that water-soluble nutrients within the soil may migrate vertically through the soil profile over time in proportion to the amount of moisture transport. Positive values indicate downward percolation; negative values indicate upward flow due to capillary action, occurring when lower soil layers are wetter than layers above them.

Example Request

https://ag.us.clearapis.com/v1.0/daily/soil/moistureflux?
app_id=123&app_key=321&location=43,-103&start=1388534400&end=1388707200

Example Response

{
    "43,-103":{
        "2014-01-01":{
            "soil_moisture_accflux_100cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.006
            },
            "soil_moisture_accflux_10cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.0
            },
            "soil_moisture_accflux_200cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.0
            },
            "soil_moisture_accflux_20cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.002
            },
            "soil_moisture_accflux_2cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.0
            },
            "soil_moisture_accflux_40cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.004
            },
            "soil_moisture_accflux_5cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.0
            },
            "soil_moisture_accflux_70cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.005
            },
            "soil_moisture_accflux_sfc":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.0
            },
            "soil_moisture_flux_100cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.006
            },
            "soil_moisture_flux_10cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":-0.005
            },
            "soil_moisture_flux_200cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.0
            },
            "soil_moisture_flux_20cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.002
            },
            "soil_moisture_flux_2cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":-0.014
            },
            "soil_moisture_flux_40cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.004
            },
            "soil_moisture_flux_5cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":-0.012
            },
            "soil_moisture_flux_70cm":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.005
            },
            "soil_moisture_flux_sfc":{
                "unit":"in",
                "value":0.0
            }
        },...
    }
}

Appendix

Common HTTP response codes

The following are common HTTP response codes and their meanings. These are standard across all API services.

  • 200 OK - The request was successful.

  • 400 Bad Request - The request was invalid. An accompanying error message will be provided if available.

  • 401 Unauthorized - Authentication to the API has failed. Authentication credentials are missing or incorrect.

  • 403 Forbidden - You are trying to access a resource for which you do not have the appropriate privileges.

  • 404 Not found - The requested resource was not found. An accompanying error message will be provided if available.

  • 500 Internal Server Error - An internal server error has occurred while processing the request.

  • 502 Bad Gateway - The service is not reachable.

Null or Empty Values

In some cases values will be represented as "n/a." This indicates that the requested data is not available or is not applicable.

Epoch/Unix Timestamp

Iteris employs Epoch/Unix timestamps for some time-based parameters. Timestamps are defined as the number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

Note that in daily endpoints, timestamps as URL arguments do not necessarily conform to this definition. In these endpoints, timestamps can be thought of as being relative to the local time zone. For example, a plant_date timestamp corresponding to 2016-05-01 00:00 UTC in the Corn Growth endpoint can be viewed as 2016-05-01 00:00 local time, and the endpoint returns data starting on that date.

Regional-based Account Access

Any data stored by the Account API in one region is not available in another. Each region will require a unique set of credentials. Please contact your account representative if interested in utilizing an additional region. When attempting to use the credentials from one region with the services in another, an 'account not found' error will be returned with HTTP status code 400. See example below:

<title>400 Bad Request</title>
<h1>Bad Request</h1>
<p>Account not found.</p>

Feedback Information

The feedback timestamp, which is the precise time when the feedback was observed, must happen after the plant/emergence date and prior to the current date. Growth feedback is considered (confirmed) if the stage of feedback occurs before the model anticipates. If there are multiple feedbacks for a given stage, the feedback with the most recent feedback timestamp will take precedence. If more than one feedback with the same stage and the same feedback timestamp are present, then the system will use the feedback with the most recent created timestamp.

Supported Crops by Feature

Crop Type Growth Model Growth Model Feedback Growth GDD Envelope Nutrient (Nitrogen) Modeling Harvest (Drydown) Modeling Focus Soil Conditions IMFocus Irrigation

Barley

X

X

X

X

Bermuda Turfgrass

X

X

X

Canola

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Corn

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Cotton

X

X

X

X

X

X

Peanut

X

Potato

X

X

X

Sorghum

X

X

X

X

X

Soybean

X

X

X

X

X

X

Spring wheat

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Sugar Beet

X

X

Sunflower

X

X

X

Winter Wheat

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Zoysia Turfgrass

X

X

X

Plant Enumerations

Below is a listing of available values for plant_type and plant_name.

Plant Type Plant Name

50

barley

59

canola

51

corn

57

springwheat

65

cotton

76

peanut

75

potato

70

sorghum

66

soybean

60

sugarbeet

72

sunflower

68

winter wheat

Activity and Plant Codes

Activity Type

Coded Value Meaning

300

Planting

301

Spraying

302

Harvesting

303

Row Crop Cultivating

304

Post-harvest Tillage

305

Pre-planting Tillage

306

Cutting

307

Soil Test

308

Fertilizer Treatment

309

Grain Moisture Test

310

Scouting Report

311

Irrigation

Activity Subtype

Activity Type Subtype Code Meaning

Planting

0

Generic

Planting

50

Barley

Planting

51

Corn

Planting

57

Spring Wheat

Planting

59

Canola

Planting

60

Sugar Beets

Planting

65

Cotton

Spraying

0

Generic

Harvesting

0

Generic

Row Crop Cultivating

0

Generic

Post-harvest Tillage

0

Generic

Pre-planting Tillage

0

Generic

Cutting

0

Generic

Cutting

1

Alfalfa

Soil Test

0

Generic

Fertilizer Treatment

0

Generic

Grain Moisture Test

0

Generic

Scouting Report

0

Generic

Irrigation

0

Generic

Variety Enumerations

This section provides the listing of all supported varieties for each applicable crop.

Peanut

Variety Enum Variety Name

0

florunner

1

florigiant

2

valencia

3

tamnut

4

starr

5

marc_i

6

agritech-127

7

sunrunner

8

southern_runner

9

early_bunch

10

georgia_green

11

ga-02c

12

ga-01r

13

c-99

Potato

Variety Enum Variety Name

0

atlantic

1

c14-343

2

desiree

3

king_edward

4

lt-1

5

majestic

6

maris_piper

7

norchip

8

red_lasoda

9

russet_burbank

10

shepody

Fertilizer Types

ID Name Type Units N P K Ca Mg S

1

Ammonium nitrate 34 0 0 0 0 0

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0.34

0

0

0

0

0

2

Ammonium phosphate sulfate 16 20 0 0 0 13

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0.16

0.2

0

0

0

0.13

3

Ammonium polyphosphate granular 11 57 0 0 0 0

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0.11

0.57

0

0

0

0

4

Ammonium sulfate 21 0 0 0 0 24

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0.21

0

0

0

0

0.24

5

Ammonium nitrate sulfate 30 0 0 0 0 6.5

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0.3

0

0

0

0

0.6

6

Calcium ammonium nitrate 27 0 0 0 0 0

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0.27

0

0

0

0

0

7

Calcium carbonate 0 0 0 40 0 0

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0

0

0

0.4

0

0

8

Calcium nitrate 15.5 0 0 19 0 0

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

.15.5

0

0

0.19

0

0

9

Calcium oxide 0 0 0 71.5 0 0

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0

0

0

0.715

0

0

10

Diammonium phosphate 18 46 0 0 0 0

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0.18

0.46

0

0

0

0

11

Diammonium phosphate 21 53 0 0 0 0

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0.21

0.53

0

0

0

0

12

Monoammonium phosphate 11 52 0 0 0 0

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0.11

0.52

0

0

0

0

13

Potassium chloride 0 0 60 0 0 0

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0

0

0.6

0

0

0

14

Potassium nitrate 13 0 44 0 0 0

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0.13

0

0.44

0

0

0

15

Potassium sulfate 0 0 50 0 0 18

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0

0

0.5

0

0

0.18

16

Single super phosphate 0 18 0 16 0 8

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0

0.18

0

0.16

0

0.8

17

Sodium nitrate 16.5 0 0 0 0 0

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

.16.5

0

0

0

0

0

18

Triple super phosphate 0 48 0 0 0 0

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0

0.48

0

0

0

0

19

Urea 46 0 0 0 0 0

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0.46

0

0

0

0

0

20

Ammonium phosphate liquid 10 34 0 0 0 0

liquid

l/ha, gal/ac

0.1

0.34

0

0

0

0

21

Ammonium polyphosphate fluid 10 34 0 0 0 0

liquid

l/ha, gal/ac

0.1

0.34

0

0

0

0

22

Ammonium polyphosphate fluid 10 37 0 0 0 0

liquid

l/ha, gal/ac

0.1

0.37

0

0

0

0

23

Anhydrous ammonia 82 0 0 0 0 0

liquid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0.82

0

0

0

0

0

24

Aqua ammonia 20 0 0 0 0 0

liquid

l/ha, gal/ac

0.2

0

0

0

0

0

25

Calcium ammonium nitrate liquid (17 0 0 8)

liquid

l/ha, gal/ac

0.17

0

0

0.88

0

0

26

Phosphoric acid 0 30 0 0 0 0

liquid

l/ha, gal/ac

0

0.3

0

0

0

0

27

Phosphoric acid 0 54 0 0 0 0

liquid

l/ha, gal/ac

0

0.54

0

0

0

0

28

Phosphoric acid 0 65 0 0 0 0

liquid

l/ha, gal/ac

0

0.65

0

0

0

0

29

Super phosphoric acid liquid 0 68 0 0 0 0

liquid

l/ha, gal/ac

0

0.68

0

0

0

0

30

Urea ammonium nitrate 32 0 0 0 0 0

liquid

l/ha, gal/ac

0.32

0

0

0

0

0

31

Microessentials sz 12 40 0 0 0 10

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0.12

0.4

0

0

0

0.1

32

Microessentials s10 12 40 0 0 0 10

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0.1

0.12

0.4

0

0

0.1

33

Microessentials s15 13 33 0 0 0 15

solid

kg/ha, lb/ac

0.15

0.13

0.33

0

0

0.15

34

Urea ammonium nitrate 28 0 0 0 0 0

liquid

l/ha, gal/ac

0.28

0

0

0

0

0

35

Urea ammonium nitrate 30 0 0 0 0 0

liquid

l/ha, gal/ac

0.3

0

0

0

0

0

USDA Texture Classes

texture class texture class description

1

Sand

2

Loamy Sand

3

Sandy Loam

4

Silt Loam

5

Silt

6

Loam

7

Sandy Clay Loam

8

Silty Clay Loam

9

Clay Loam

10

Sandy Clay

11

Silty Clay

12

Clay

13

Organic Materials

14

Water

15

Bedrock

16

Other

Crop Coefficients

Note that the following table is largely derived from FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56 Crop Evapotranspiration by Allen, Pereira, Raes, and Smith (Tables 11 and 12). IDs on each row correspond to a unique combination of crop, plant date, and region. Stage lengths, plant date, and region correspond to crops in length_crop column, and crop coefficients correspond to crops in kc_crop column. Each row contains a set of two crops since the two tables from which the data are derived do not perfectly map to each other—​for example leading to a pairing of "Crucifers" and "Brussels sprouts", which is a type of crucifer.

ID length_crop length_initial/ length_development/ length_midseason/ length_late Plant Date Region kc_crop kc_initial/ kc_midseason/ kc_end

1.0

Broccoli

35 / 45 / 40 / 15

Sep

Calif. Desert

Broccoli

0.7 / 1.05 / 0.95

1.1

Crucifers

20 / 30 / 20 / 10

Apr

Medit.

Brussels sprouts

0.7 / 1.05 / 0.95

1.2

Crucifers

25 / 35 / 25 / 10

Feb

Medit.

Brussels sprouts

0.7 / 1.05 / 0.95

1.3

Crucifers

30 / 35 / 90 / 40

Oct/Nov

Medit.

Brussels sprouts

0.7 / 1.05 / 0.95

1.4

Cabbage

40 / 60 / 50 / 15

Sep

Calif. Desert

Cabbage

0.7 / 1.05 / 0.95

1.5

Carrots

20 / 30 / 50 / 20

Oct

Arid Region

Carrots

0.7 / 1.05 / 0.95

1.6

Carrots

20 / 30 / 30 / 20

Jan

Arid Region

Carrots

0.7 / 1.05 / 0.95

1.7

Carrots

30 / 40 / 60 / 20

Feb/Mar

Medit.

Carrots

0.7 / 1.05 / 0.95

1.8

Carrots

30 / 50 / 90 / 30

Oct

Calif. Desert

Carrots

0.7 / 1.05 / 0.95

1.9

Cauliflower

35 / 50 / 40 / 15

Sep

Calif. Desert

Cauliflower

0.7 / 1.05 / 0.95

1.10

Celery

25 / 40 / 95 / 20

Oct

Semi-Arid Region

Celery

0.7 / 1.05 / 1

1.11

Celery

25 / 40 / 45 / 15

Apr

Medit.

Celery

0.7 / 1.05 / 1

1.12

Celery

30 / 55 / 105 / 20

Jan

Semi-Arid Region

Celery

0.7 / 1.05 / 1

1.13

Lettuce

20 / 30 / 15 / 10

Apr

Medit.

Lettuce

0.7 / 1 / 0.95

1.14

Lettuce

30 / 40 / 25 / 10

Nov/Jan

Medit.

Lettuce

0.7 / 1 / 0.95

1.15

Lettuce

25 / 35 / 30 / 10

Oct/Nov

Arid Region

Lettuce

0.7 / 1 / 0.95

1.16

Lettuce

35 / 50 / 45 / 10

Feb

Medit.

Lettuce

0.7 / 1 / 0.95

1.17

Onion (dry)

15 / 25 / 70 / 40

Apr

Medit.

Onion (dry)

0.7 / 1.05 / 0.75

1.18

Onion (dry)

20 / 35 / 110 / 45

Oct

Arid Region

Onion (dry)

0.7 / 1.05 / 0.75

1.19

Onion (dry)

20 / 35 / 110 / 45

Jan

California

Onion (dry)

0.7 / 1.05 / 0.75

1.20

Onion (green)

25 / 30 / 10 / 5

Apr/May

Medit.

Onion (green)

0.7 / 1 / 1

1.21

Onion (green)

20 / 45 / 20 / 10

Oct

Arid Region

Onion (green)

0.7 / 1 / 1

1.22

Onion (green)

30 / 55 / 55 / 40

Mar

California

Onion (green)

0.7 / 1 / 1

1.23

Onion (seed)

20 / 45 / 165 / 45

Sep

Calif. Desert

Onion (seed)

0.7 / 1.05 / 0.8

1.24

Spinach

20 / 20 / 15 / 5

Apr

Medit.

Spinach

0.7 / 1 / 0.95

1.25

Spinach

20 / 20 / 25 / 5

Sep/Oct

Medit.

Spinach

0.7 / 1 / 0.95

1.26

Spinach

20 / 30 / 40 / 10

Nov

Arid Region

Spinach

0.7 / 1 / 0.95

1.27

Radish

5 / 10 / 15 / 5

Mar/Apr

Medit.

Radish

0.7 / 0.9 / 0.85

1.28

Radish

5 / 10 / 15 / 5

Mar/Apr

Europe

Radish

0.7 / 0.9 / 0.85

1.29

Radish

10 / 10 / 15 / 5

Winter

Arid Region

Radish

0.7 / 0.9 / 0.85

2.0

Egg plant

30 / 40 / 40 / 20

Oct

Arid Region

Egg plant

0.6 / 1.05 / 0.9

2.1

Egg plant

30 / 45 / 40 / 25

May/Jun

Medit.

Egg plant

0.6 / 1.05 / 0.9

2.2

Sweet peppers (bell)

25 / 35 / 40 / 20

Apr

Europe

Sweet peppers (bell)

0.6 / 1.05 / 0.9

2.3

Sweet peppers (bell)

30 / 35 / 40 / 20

Jun

Europe

Sweet peppers (bell)

0.6 / 1.05 / 0.9

2.4

Sweet peppers (bell)

25 / 35 / 40 / 20

Apr

Medit.

Sweet peppers (bell)

0.6 / 1.05 / 0.9

2.5

Sweet peppers (bell)

30 / 35 / 40 / 20

Jun

Medit.

Sweet peppers (bell)

0.6 / 1.05 / 0.9

2.6

Sweet peppers (bell)

30 / 40 / 110 / 30

Oct

Arid Region

Sweet peppers (bell)

0.6 / 1.05 / 0.9

2.7

Tomato

30 / 40 / 40 / 25

Jan

Arid Region

Tomato

0.6 / 1.15 / 0.8

2.8

Tomato

35 / 40 / 50 / 30

Apr/May

California

Tomato

0.6 / 1.15 / 0.8

2.9

Tomato

25 / 40 / 60 / 30

Jan

Calif. Desert

Tomato

0.6 / 1.15 / 0.8

2.10

Tomato

35 / 45 / 70 / 30

Oct/Nov

Arid Region

Tomato

0.6 / 1.15 / 0.8

2.11

Tomato

30 / 40 / 45 / 30

Apr/May

Medit.

Tomato

0.6 / 1.15 / 0.8

3.0

Cantaloupe

30 / 45 / 35 / 10

Jan

California

Cantaloupe

0.5 / 0.85 / 0.6

3.1

Cantaloupe

10 / 60 / 25 / 25

Aug

California

Cantaloupe

0.5 / 0.85 / 0.6

3.2

Cucumber

20 / 30 / 40 / 15

Jun/Aug

Arid Region

Cucumber (fresh market)

0.6 / 1 / 0.75

3.3

Cucumber

25 / 35 / 50 / 20

Nov/Feb

Arid Region

Cucumber (fresh market)

0.6 / 1 / 0.75

3.4

Cucumber

20 / 30 / 40 / 15

Jun/Aug

Arid Region

Cucumber (machine harvest)

0.5 / 1 / 0.9

3.5

Cucumber

25 / 35 / 50 / 20

Nov/Feb

Arid Region

Cucumber (machine harvest)

0.5 / 1 / 0.9

3.6

Pumpkin

20 / 30 / 30 / 20

Mar/Aug

Medit.

Pumpkin

0.5 / 1 / 0.8

3.7

Pumpkin

25 / 35 / 35 / 25

Jun

Europe

Pumpkin

0.5 / 1 / 0.8

3.8

Winter squash

20 / 30 / 30 / 20

Mar/Aug

Medit.

Winter Squash

0.5 / 1 / 0.8

3.9

Winter squash

25 / 35 / 35 / 25

Jun

Europe

Winter Squash

0.5 / 1 / 0.8

3.10

Squash

25 / 35 / 25 / 15

Apr

Medit.

Squash

0.5 / 0.95 / 0.75

3.11

Squash

25 / 35 / 25 / 15

Dec

Arid Region

Squash

0.5 / 0.95 / 0.75

3.12

Squash

20 / 30 / 25 / 15

May/Jun

Medit.

Squash

0.5 / 0.95 / 0.75

3.13

Squash

20 / 30 / 25 / 15

May/Jun

Europe

Squash

0.5 / 0.95 / 0.75

3.14

Zucchini

25 / 35 / 25 / 15

Apr

Medit.

Zucchini

0.5 / 0.95 / 0.75

3.15

Zucchini

25 / 35 / 25 / 15

Dec

Arid Region

Zucchini

0.5 / 0.95 / 0.75

3.16

Zucchini

20 / 30 / 25 / 15

May/Jun

Medit.

Zucchini

0.5 / 0.95 / 0.75

3.17

Zucchini

20 / 30 / 25 / 15

May/Jun

Europe

Zucchini

0.5 / 0.95 / 0.75

3.18

Sweet melons

25 / 35 / 40 / 20

May

Medit.

Sweet Melons

0.5 / 1.05 / 0.75

3.19

Sweet melons

30 / 30 / 50 / 30

Mar

California

Sweet Melons

0.5 / 1.05 / 0.75

3.20

Sweet melons

15 / 40 / 65 / 15

Aug

Calif. Desert

Sweet Melons

0.5 / 1.05 / 0.75

3.21

Sweet melons

30 / 45 / 65 / 20

Dec/Jan

Arid Region

Sweet Melons

0.5 / 1.05 / 0.75

3.22

Watermelon

20 / 30 / 30 / 30

Apr

Italy

Watermelon

0.4 / 1 / 0.75

3.23

Watermelon

10 / 20 / 20 / 30

May/Aug

Near East Desert

Watermelon

0.4 / 1 / 0.75

4.0

Beets (table)

15 / 25 / 20 / 10

Apr/May

Medit.

Beets (table)

0.5 / 1.05 / 0.95

4.1

Beets (table)

25 / 30 / 25 / 10

Feb/Mar

Medit.

Beets (table)

0.5 / 1.05 / 0.95

4.2

Beets (table)

25 / 30 / 25 / 10

Feb/Mar

Arid Region

Beets (table)

0.5 / 1.05 / 0.95

4.3

Cassava (year 1)

20 / 40 / 90 / 60

Rainy Season

Tropical region

Cassava (year 1)

0.3 / 0.8 / 0.3

4.4

Cassava (year 2)

150 / 40 / 110 / 60

Rainy Season

Tropical region

Cassava (year 2)

0.3 / 1.1 / 0.5

4.5

Potato

25 / 30 / 30 / 30

Jan

Semi-Arid Region

Potato

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.75

4.6

Potato

25 / 30 / 45 / 30

Nov

Semi-Arid Region

Potato

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.75

4.7

Potato

25 / 30 / 45 / 30

May

Continental Region

Potato

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.75

4.8

Potato

30 / 35 / 50 / 30

Apr

Europe

Potato

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.75

4.9

Potato

45 / 30 / 70 / 20

Apr/May

Idaho

Potato

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.75

4.10

Potato

30 / 35 / 50 / 25

Dec

Calif. Desert

Potato

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.75

4.11

Sweet potato

20 / 30 / 60 / 40

Apr

Medit.

Sweet potato

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.65

4.12

Sweet potato

15 / 30 / 50 / 30

Rainy Season

Tropical Region

Sweet potato

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.65

4.13

Crucifers

20 / 30 / 20 / 10

Apr

Medit.

Turnip

0.5 / 1.1 / 0.95

4.14

Crucifers

25 / 35 / 25 / 10

Feb

Medit.

Turnip

0.5 / 1.1 / 0.95

4.15

Crucifers

30 / 35 / 90 / 40

Oct/Nov

Medit.

Turnip

0.5 / 1.1 / 0.95

4.16

Crucifers

20 / 30 / 20 / 10

Apr

Medit.

Rutabaga

0.5 / 1.1 / 0.95

4.17

Crucifers

25 / 35 / 25 / 10

Feb

Medit.

Rutabaga

0.5 / 1.1 / 0.95

4.18

Crucifers

30 / 35 / 90 / 40

Oct/Nov

Medit.

Rutabaga

0.5 / 1.1 / 0.95

4.19

Sugarbeet

30 / 45 / 90 / 15

Mar

California

Sugarbeet

0.35 / 1.2 / 0.7

4.20

Sugarbeet

25 / 30 / 90 / 10

Jun

California

Sugarbeet

0.35 / 1.2 / 0.7

4.21

Sugarbeet

25 / 65 / 100 / 65

Sep

Calif. Desert

Sugarbeet

0.35 / 1.2 / 0.7

4.22

Sugarbeet

50 / 40 / 50 / 40

Apr

Idaho

Sugarbeet

0.35 / 1.2 / 0.7

4.23

Sugarbeet

25 / 35 / 50 / 50

May

Medit.

Sugarbeet

0.35 / 1.2 / 0.7

4.24

Sugarbeet

45 / 75 / 80 / 30

Nov

Medit.

Sugarbeet

0.35 / 1.2 / 0.7

4.25

Sugarbeet

35 / 60 / 70 / 40

Nov

Arid Region

Sugarbeet

0.35 / 1.2 / 0.7

5.0

Beans (green)

20 / 30 / 30 / 10

Feb/Mar

California

Beans (green)

0.5 / 1.05 / 0.9

5.1

Beans (green)

20 / 30 / 30 / 10

Feb/Mar

Medit.

Beans (green)

0.5 / 1.05 / 0.9

5.2

Beans (green)

15 / 25 / 25 / 10

Aug/Sep

California

Beans (green)

0.5 / 1.05 / 0.9

5.3

Beans (green)

15 / 25 / 25 / 10

Aug/Sep

Egypt

Beans (green)

0.5 / 1.05 / 0.9

5.4

Beans (green)

15 / 25 / 25 / 10

Aug/Sep

Lebanon

Beans (green)

0.5 / 1.05 / 0.9

5.5

Beans (dry)

20 / 30 / 40 / 20

May/Jun

Continental Region

Beans (dry)

0.4 / 1.15 / 0.35

5.6

Beans (dry)

15 / 25 / 35 / 20

Jun

California

Beans (dry)

0.4 / 1.15 / 0.35

5.7

Beans (dry)

15 / 25 / 35 / 20

Jun

Pakistan

Beans (dry)

0.4 / 1.15 / 0.35

5.8

Beans (dry)

25 / 25 / 30 / 20

Jun

Idaho

Beans (dry)

0.4 / 1.15 / 0.35

5.9

Cowpea

20 / 30 / 30 / 20

Mar

Medit.

Cowpea (fresh)

0.4 / 1.05 / 0.6

5.10

Cowpea

20 / 30 / 30 / 20

Mar

Medit.

Cowpea (dry)

0.4 / 1.05 / 0.35

5.11

Fababean (dry)

90 / 45 / 40 / 60

Nov

Europe

Fababean (dry)

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.3

5.12

Fababean (green)

15 / 25 / 35 / 15

May

Europe

Fababean (fresh)

0.5 / 1.15 / 1.1

5.13

Fababean (green)

20 / 30 / 35 / 15

Mar/Apr

Medit.

Fababean (fresh)

0.5 / 1.15 / 1.1

5.14

Fababean (green)

90 / 45 / 40 / 0

Nov

Europe

Fababean (fresh)

0.5 / 1.15 / 1.1

5.15

Green gram

20 / 30 / 30 / 20

Mar

Medit.

Green gram (fresh)

0.4 / 1.05 / 0.6

5.16

Green gram

20 / 30 / 30 / 20

Mar

Medit.

Green gram (dry)

0.4 / 1.05 / 0.35

5.17

Groundnut

25 / 35 / 45 / 25

Dry Season

West Africa

Groundnut

0.4 / 1.15 / 0.6

5.18

Groundnut

35 / 35 / 35 / 35

May

High Latitudes

Groundnut

0.4 / 1.15 / 0.6

5.19

Groundnut

35 / 45 / 35 / 25

May/Jun

Medit.

Groundnut

0.4 / 1.15 / 0.6

5.20

Lentil

20 / 30 / 60 / 40

Apr

Europe

Lentil

0.4 / 1.1 / 0.3

5.21

Lentil

25 / 35 / 70 / 40

Oct/Nov

Arid Region

Lentil

0.4 / 1.1 / 0.3

5.22

Pea

15 / 25 / 35 / 15

May

Europe

Pea (fresh)

0.5 / 1.15 / 1.1

5.23

Pea

20 / 30 / 35 / 15

Mar/Apr

Medit.

Pea (fresh)

0.5 / 1.15 / 1.1

5.24

Pea

35 / 25 / 30 / 20

Apr

Idaho

Pea (fresh)

0.5 / 1.15 / 1.1

5.25

Pea

15 / 25 / 35 / 15

May

Europe

Pea (dry)

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.3

5.26

Pea

20 / 30 / 35 / 15

Mar/Apr

Medit.

Pea (dry)

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.3

5.27

Pea

35 / 25 / 30 / 20

Apr

Idaho

Pea (dry)

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.3

5.28

Soybean

15 / 15 / 40 / 15

Dec

Tropics

Soybean

0.4 / 1.15 / 0.5

5.29

Soybean

20 / 35 / 60 / 25

May

Central USA

Soybean

0.4 / 1.15 / 0.5

5.30

Soybean

20 / 25 / 75 / 30

Jun

Japan

Soybean

0.4 / 1.15 / 0.5

6.0

Artichoke

40 / 40 / 250 / 30

Apr (1st yr)

California

Artichoke

0.5 / 1 / 0.95

6.1

Artichoke

20 / 25 / 250 / 30

May (2nd yr)

California

Artichoke

0.5 / 1 / 0.95

6.2

Asparagus

50 / 30 / 100 / 50

Feb

Warm Winter

Asparagus

0.5 / 0.95 / 0.3

6.3

Asparagus

90 / 30 / 200 / 45

Feb

Medit.

Asparagus

0.5 / 0.95 / 0.3

7.0

Cotton

30 / 50 / 60 / 55

Mar/Apr/May

Egypt

Cotton

0.35 / 1.175 / 0.6

7.1

Cotton

30 / 50 / 60 / 55

Mar/Apr/May

Pakistan

Cotton

0.35 / 1.175 / 0.6

7.2

Cotton

30 / 50 / 60 / 55

Mar/Apr/May

California

Cotton

0.35 / 1.175 / 0.6

7.3

Cotton

45 / 90 / 45 / 45

Mar

Calif. Desert

Cotton

0.35 / 1.175 / 0.6

7.4

Cotton

30 / 50 / 60 / 55

Sep

Yemen

Cotton

0.35 / 1.175 / 0.6

7.5

Cotton

30 / 50 / 55 / 45

Apr

Texas

Cotton

0.35 / 1.175 / 0.6

7.6

Flax

25 / 35 / 50 / 40

Apr

Europe

Flax

0.35 / 1.1 / 0.25

7.7

Flax

30 / 40 / 100 / 50

Oct

Arizona

Flax

0.35 / 1.1 / 0.25

8.0

Castorbean

25 / 40 / 65 / 50

Mar

Semi-Arid Region

Castorbean

0.35 / 1.15 / 0.55

8.1

Castorbean

20 / 40 / 50 / 25

Nov

Indonesia

Castorbean

0.35 / 1.15 / 0.55

8.2

Crucifers

20 / 30 / 20 / 10

Apr

Medit.

Rapeseed/Canola

0.35 / 1.15 / 0.35

8.3

Crucifers

25 / 35 / 25 / 10

Feb

Medit.

Rapeseed/Canola

0.35 / 1.15 / 0.35

8.4

Crucifers

30 / 35 / 90 / 40

Oct/Nov

Medit.

Rapeseed/Canola

0.35 / 1.15 / 0.35

8.5

Safflower

20 / 35 / 45 / 25

Apr

California

Safflower

0.35 / 1.15 / 0.25

8.6

Safflower

25 / 35 / 55 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Safflower

0.35 / 1.15 / 0.25

8.7

Safflower

35 / 55 / 60 / 40

Oct/Nov

Arid Region

Safflower

0.35 / 1.15 / 0.25

8.8

Sesame

20 / 30 / 40 / 20

Jun

China

Sesame

0.35 / 1.1 / 0.25

8.9

Sunflower

25 / 35 / 45 / 25

Apr/May

Medit.

Sunflower

0.35 / 1.15 / 0.35

8.10

Sunflower

25 / 35 / 45 / 25

Apr/May

California

Sunflower

0.35 / 1.15 / 0.35

9.0

Barley

15 / 25 / 50 / 30

Nov

Central India

Barley

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.1

Barley

20 / 25 / 60 / 30

Mar/Apr

35-45 °L

Barley

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.2

Barley

15 / 30 / 65 / 40

Jul

East Africa

Barley

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.3

Barley

40 / 30 / 40 / 20

Apr

East Africa

Barley

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.4

Barley

40 / 60 / 60 / 40

Nov

East Africa

Barley

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.5

Barley

20 / 50 / 60 / 30

Dec

Calif. Desert

Barley

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.6

Oats

15 / 25 / 50 / 30

Nov

Central India

Oats

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.7

Oats

20 / 25 / 60 / 30

Mar/Apr

35-45 °L

Oats

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.8

Oats

15 / 30 / 65 / 40

Jul

East Africa

Oats

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.9

Oats

40 / 30 / 40 / 20

Apr

East Africa

Oats

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.10

Oats

40 / 60 / 60 / 40

Nov

East Africa

Oats

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.11

Oats

20 / 50 / 60 / 30

Dec

Calif. Desert

Oats

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.12

Wheat

15 / 25 / 50 / 30

Nov

Central India

Spring wheat

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.13

Wheat

20 / 25 / 60 / 30

Mar/Apr

35-45 °L

Spring wheat

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.14

Wheat

15 / 30 / 65 / 40

Jul

East Africa

Spring wheat

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.15

Wheat

40 / 30 / 40 / 20

Apr

East Africa

Spring wheat

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.16

Wheat

40 / 60 / 60 / 40

Nov

East Africa

Spring wheat

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.17

Wheat

20 / 50 / 60 / 30

Dec

Calif. Desert

Spring wheat

0.3 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.18

Winter wheat

20 / 60 / 70 / 30

Dec

California

Winter wheat (frozen soils)

0.4 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.19

Winter wheat

30 / 140 / 40 / 30

Nov

Medit.

Winter wheat (frozen soils)

0.4 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.20

Winter wheat

160 / 75 / 75 / 25

Oct

Idaho

Winter wheat (frozen soils)

0.4 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.21

Winter wheat

20 / 60 / 70 / 30

Dec

California

Winter wheat (non-frozen soils)

0.7 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.22

Winter wheat

30 / 140 / 40 / 30

Nov

Medit.

Winter wheat (non-frozen soils)

0.7 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.23

Winter wheat

160 / 75 / 75 / 25

Oct

Idaho

Winter wheat (non-frozen soils)

0.7 / 1.15 / 0.25

9.24

Maize (grain)

30 / 50 / 60 / 40

Apr

East Africa

Maize (grain; high harvest moisture)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.6

9.25

Maize (grain)

25 / 40 / 45 / 30

Dec/Jan

Arid Region

Maize (grain; high harvest moisture)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.6

9.26

Maize (grain)

20 / 35 / 40 / 30

Jun

Nigeria

Maize (grain; high harvest moisture)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.6

9.27

Maize (grain)

20 / 35 / 40 / 30

Oct

India

Maize (grain; high harvest moisture)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.6

9.28

Maize (grain)

30 / 40 / 50 / 30

Apr

Spain

Maize (grain; high harvest moisture)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.6

9.29

Maize (grain)

30 / 40 / 50 / 30

Apr

California

Maize (grain; high harvest moisture)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.6

9.30

Maize (grain)

30 / 40 / 50 / 50

Apr

Idaho

Maize (grain; high harvest moisture)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.6

9.31

Maize (grain)

30 / 50 / 60 / 40

Apr

East Africa

Maize (grain; low harvest moisture)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.35

9.32

Maize (grain)

25 / 40 / 45 / 30

Dec/Jan

Arid Region

Maize (grain; low harvest moisture)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.35

9.33

Maize (grain)

20 / 35 / 40 / 30

Jun

Nigeria

Maize (grain; low harvest moisture)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.35

9.34

Maize (grain)

20 / 35 / 40 / 30

Oct

India

Maize (grain; low harvest moisture)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.35

9.35

Maize (grain)

30 / 40 / 50 / 30

Apr

Spain

Maize (grain; low harvest moisture)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.35

9.36

Maize (grain)

30 / 40 / 50 / 30

Apr

California

Maize (grain; low harvest moisture)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.35

9.37

Maize (grain)

30 / 40 / 50 / 50

Apr

Idaho

Maize (grain; low harvest moisture)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.35

9.38

Maize (sweet)

20 / 20 / 30 / 10

Mar

Philippines

Maize (sweet)

0.3 / 1.15 / 1.05

9.39

Maize (sweet)

20 / 25 / 25 / 10

May/Jun

Medit.

Maize (sweet)

0.3 / 1.15 / 1.05

9.40

Maize (sweet)

20 / 30 / 50 / 10

Oct

Arid Region

Maize (sweet)

0.3 / 1.15 / 1.05

9.41

Maize (sweet)

20 / 30 / 30 / 10

Dec

Arid Region

Maize (sweet)

0.3 / 1.15 / 1.05

9.42

Maize (sweet)

30 / 30 / 30 / 10

Apr

Idaho

Maize (sweet)

0.3 / 1.15 / 1.05

9.43

Maize (sweet)

20 / 40 / 70 / 10

Jan

Calif. Desert

Maize (sweet)

0.3 / 1.15 / 1.05

9.44

Millet

15 / 25 / 40 / 25

Jun

Pakistan

Millet

0.3 / 1 / 0.3

9.45

Millet

20 / 30 / 55 / 35

Apr

Central USA

Millet

0.3 / 1 / 0.3

9.46

Sorghum

20 / 35 / 40 / 30

May/Jun

USA

Sorghum (grain)

0.3 / 1.05 / 0.55

9.47

Sorghum

20 / 35 / 40 / 30

May/Jun

Pakistan

Sorghum (grain)

0.3 / 1.05 / 0.55

9.48

Sorghum

20 / 35 / 40 / 30

May/Jun

Medit.

Sorghum (grain)

0.3 / 1.05 / 0.55

9.49

Sorghum

20 / 35 / 45 / 30

Mar/Apr

Arid Region

Sorghum (grain)

0.3 / 1.05 / 0.55

9.50

Sorghum

20 / 35 / 40 / 30

May/Jun

USA

Sorghum (sweet)

0.3 / 1.2 / 1.05

9.51

Sorghum

20 / 35 / 40 / 30

May/Jun

Pakistan

Sorghum (sweet)

0.3 / 1.2 / 1.05

9.52

Sorghum

20 / 35 / 40 / 30

May/Jun

Medit.

Sorghum (sweet)

0.3 / 1.2 / 1.05

9.53

Sorghum

20 / 35 / 45 / 30

Mar/Apr

Arid Region

Sorghum (sweet)

0.3 / 1.2 / 1.05

9.54

Rice

30 / 30 / 60 / 30

Dec

Tropics

Rice

1.05 / 1.2 / 0.75

9.55

Rice

30 / 30 / 60 / 30

May

Medit.

Rice

1.05 / 1.2 / 0.75

9.56

Rice

30 / 30 / 80 / 40

May

Tropics

Rice

1.05 / 1.2 / 0.75

10.0

Alfalfa (total season)

10 / 30 / - / -

-

last -4°C in spring until first -4°C in fall

Alfalfa (averaged cutting effects)

0.4 / 0.95 / 0.9

10.1

Alfalfa (total season)

10 / 30 / - / -

-

last -4°C in spring until first -4°C in fall

Alfalfa (individual cutting periods)

0.4 / 1.2 / 1.15

10.2

Alfalfa (total season)

10 / 30 / - / -

-

last -4°C in spring until first -4°C in fall

Alfalfa (for seed)

0.4 / 0.5 / 0.5

10.3

Alfalfa (1st cutting cycle)

10 / 20 / 20 / 10

Jan

California

Alfalfa (averaged cutting effects)

0.4 / 0.95 / 0.9

10.4

Alfalfa (1st cutting cycle)

10 / 30 / 25 / 10

Apr (last -4°C)

Idaho

Alfalfa (averaged cutting effects)

0.4 / 0.95 / 0.9

10.5

Alfalfa (1st cutting cycle)

10 / 20 / 20 / 10

Jan

California

Alfalfa (individual cutting periods)

0.4 / 1.2 / 1.15

10.6

Alfalfa (1st cutting cycle)

10 / 30 / 25 / 10

Apr (last -4°C)

Idaho

Alfalfa (individual cutting periods)

0.4 / 1.2 / 1.15

10.7

Alfalfa (1st cutting cycle)

10 / 20 / 20 / 10

Jan

California

Alfalfa (for seed)

0.4 / 0.5 / 0.5

10.8

Alfalfa (1st cutting cycle)

10 / 30 / 25 / 10

Apr (last -4°C)

Idaho

Alfalfa (for seed)

0.4 / 0.5 / 0.5

10.9

Alfalfa (other cutting cycles)

5 / 10 / 10 / 5

Mar

California

Alfalfa (averaged cutting effects)

0.4 / 0.95 / 0.9

10.10

Alfalfa (other cutting cycles)

5 / 20 / 10 / 10

Jun

Idaho

Alfalfa (averaged cutting effects)

0.4 / 0.95 / 0.9

10.11

Alfalfa (other cutting cycles)

5 / 10 / 10 / 5

Mar

California

Alfalfa (individual cutting periods)

0.4 / 1.2 / 1.15

10.12

Alfalfa (other cutting cycles)

5 / 20 / 10 / 10

Jun

Idaho

Alfalfa (individual cutting periods)

0.4 / 1.2 / 1.15

10.13

Alfalfa (other cutting cycles)

5 / 10 / 10 / 5

Mar

California

Alfalfa (for seed)

0.4 / 0.5 / 0.5

10.14

Alfalfa (other cutting cycles)

5 / 20 / 10 / 10

Jun

Idaho

Alfalfa (for seed)

0.4 / 0.5 / 0.5

10.15

Bermuda (for hay; several cuttings)

10 / 15 / 75 / 35

-

Calif. Desert

Bermuda (averaged cutting effects)

0.55 / 1 / 0.85

10.16

Bermuda (for seed)

10 / 25 / 35 / 35

Mar

Calif. Desert

Bermuda (spring crop for seed)

0.35 / 0.9 / 0.65

10.17

Grass pasture

10 / 20 / - / -

-

7 days before last -4°C in spring until 7 days after first -4°C in fall

Grazing pasture (rotated grazing)

0.4 / 0.95 / 0.85

10.18

Grass pasture

10 / 20 / - / -

-

7 days before last -4°C in spring until 7 days after first -4°C in fall

Grazing pasture (extensive grazing)

0.3 / 0.75 / 0.75

10.19

Sudan (1st cutting cycle)

25 / 25 / 15 / 10

Apr

Calif. Desert

Sudan grass (averaged cutting effects)

0.5 / 0.9 / 0.85

10.20

Sudan (1st cutting cycle)

25 / 25 / 15 / 10

Apr

Calif. Desert

Sudan grass (individual cutting periods)

0.5 / 1.15 / 1.1

10.21

Sudan (other cutting cycles)

3 / 15 / 12 / 7

Jun

Calif. Desert

Sudan grass (averaged cutting effects)

0.5 / 0.9 / 0.85

10.22

Sudan (other cutting cycles)

3 / 15 / 12 / 7

Jun

Calif. Desert

Sudan grass (individual cutting periods)

0.5 / 1.15 / 1.1

11.0

Sugarcane (virgin)

35 / 60 / 190 / 120

-

Low Latitudes

Sugarcane

0.4 / 1.25 / 0.75

11.1

Sugarcane (virgin)

50 / 70 / 220 / 140

-

Tropics

Sugarcane

0.4 / 1.25 / 0.75

11.2

Sugarcane (virgin)

75 / 105 / 330 / 210

-

Hawaii

Sugarcane

0.4 / 1.25 / 0.75

11.3

Sugarcane (ratoon)

25 / 70 / 135 / 50

-

Low Latitudes

Sugarcane

0.4 / 1.25 / 0.75

11.4

Sugarcane (ratoon)

30 / 50 / 180 / 60

-

Tropics

Sugarcane

0.4 / 1.25 / 0.75

11.5

Sugarcane (ratoon)

35 / 105 / 210 / 70

-

Hawaii

Sugarcane

0.4 / 1.25 / 0.75

12.0

Banana (1st year)

120 / 90 / 120 / 60

Mar

Medit.

Banana (1st year)

0.5 / 1.1 / 1

12.1

Banana (2nd year)

120 / 60 / 180 / 5

Feb

Medit.

Banana (2nd year)

1 / 1.2 / 1.1

12.2

Pineapple

60 / 120 / 600 / 10

-

Hawaii

Pineapple (bare soil)

0.5 / 0.3 / 0.3

12.3

Pineapple

60 / 120 / 600 / 10

-

Hawaii

Pineapple (with grass cover)

0.5 / 0.5 / 0.5

13.0

Grapes

20 / 40 / 120 / 60

Apr

Low Latitudes

Grapes (table or raisin)

0.3 / 0.85 / 0.45

13.1

Grapes

20 / 50 / 75 / 60

Mar

California

Grapes (table or raisin)

0.3 / 0.85 / 0.45

13.2

Grapes

20 / 50 / 90 / 20

May

High Latitudes

Grapes (table or raisin)

0.3 / 0.85 / 0.45

13.3

Grapes

30 / 60 / 40 / 80

Apr

Mid Latitudes

Grapes (table or raisin)

0.3 / 0.85 / 0.45

13.4

Grapes

20 / 40 / 120 / 60

Apr

Low Latitudes

Grapes (wine)

0.3 / 0.7 / 0.45

13.5

Grapes

20 / 50 / 75 / 60

Mar

California

Grapes (wine)

0.3 / 0.7 / 0.45

13.6

Grapes

20 / 50 / 90 / 20

May

High Latitudes

Grapes (wine)

0.3 / 0.7 / 0.45

13.7

Grapes

30 / 60 / 40 / 80

Apr

Mid Latitudes

Grapes (wine)

0.3 / 0.7 / 0.45

13.8

Hops

25 / 40 / 80 / 10

Apr

Idaho

Hops

0.3 / 1.05 / 0.85

14.0

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Almonds (no ground cover)

0.4 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.1

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Almonds (no ground cover)

0.4 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.2

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Almonds (no ground cover)

0.4 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.3

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Apple (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.95 / 0.7

14.4

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Apple (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.95 / 0.7

14.5

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Apple (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.95 / 0.7

14.6

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Apple (no ground cover; no frost)

0.6 / 0.95 / 0.75

14.7

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Apple (no ground cover; no frost)

0.6 / 0.95 / 0.75

14.8

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Apple (no ground cover; no frost)

0.6 / 0.95 / 0.75

14.9

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Apple (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.2 / 0.95

14.10

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Apple (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.2 / 0.95

14.11

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Apple (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.2 / 0.95

14.12

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Apple (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.2 / 0.85

14.13

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Apple (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.2 / 0.85

14.14

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Apple (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.2 / 0.85

14.15

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Cherry (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.95 / 0.7

14.16

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Cherry (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.95 / 0.7

14.17

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Cherry (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.95 / 0.7

14.18

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Cherry (no ground cover; no frost)

0.6 / 0.95 / 0.75

14.19

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Cherry (no ground cover; no frost)

0.6 / 0.95 / 0.75

14.20

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Cherry (no ground cover; no frost)

0.6 / 0.95 / 0.75

14.21

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Cherry (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.2 / 0.95

14.22

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Cherry (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.2 / 0.95

14.23

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Cherry (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.2 / 0.95

14.24

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Cherry (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.2 / 0.85

14.25

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Cherry (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.2 / 0.85

14.26

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Cherry (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.2 / 0.85

14.27

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Pear (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.95 / 0.7

14.28

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Pear (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.95 / 0.7

14.29

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Pear (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.95 / 0.7

14.30

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Pear (no ground cover; no frost)

0.6 / 0.95 / 0.75

14.31

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Pear (no ground cover; no frost)

0.6 / 0.95 / 0.75

14.32

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Pear (no ground cover; no frost)

0.6 / 0.95 / 0.75

14.33

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Pear (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.2 / 0.95

14.34

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Pear (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.2 / 0.95

14.35

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Pear (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.2 / 0.95

14.36

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Pear (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.2 / 0.85

14.37

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Pear (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.2 / 0.85

14.38

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Pear (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.2 / 0.85

14.39

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Apricot (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.40

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Apricot (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.41

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Apricot (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.42

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Apricot (no ground cover; no frost)

0.55 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.43

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Apricot (no ground cover; no frost)

0.55 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.44

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Apricot (no ground cover; no frost)

0.55 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.45

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Apricot (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.9

14.46

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Apricot (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.9

14.47

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Apricot (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.9

14.48

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Apricot (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.15 / 0.85

14.49

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Apricot (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.15 / 0.85

14.50

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Apricot (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.15 / 0.85

14.51

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Peach (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.52

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Peach (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.53

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Peach (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.54

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Peach (no ground cover; no frost)

0.55 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.55

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Peach (no ground cover; no frost)

0.55 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.56

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Peach (no ground cover; no frost)

0.55 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.57

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Peach (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.9

14.58

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Peach (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.9

14.59

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Peach (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.9

14.60

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Peach (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.15 / 0.85

14.61

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Peach (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.15 / 0.85

14.62

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Peach (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.15 / 0.85

14.63

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Stone Fruit (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.64

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Stone Fruit (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.65

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Stone Fruit (no ground cover; killing frost)

0.45 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.66

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Stone Fruit (no ground cover; no frost)

0.55 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.67

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Stone Fruit (no ground cover; no frost)

0.55 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.68

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Stone Fruit (no ground cover; no frost)

0.55 / 0.9 / 0.65

14.69

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Stone Fruit (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.9

14.70

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Stone Fruit (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.9

14.71

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Stone Fruit (active ground cover; killing frost)

0.5 / 1.15 / 0.9

14.72

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 90 / 30

Mar

High Latitudes

Stone Fruit (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.15 / 0.85

14.73

Deciduous orchard

20 / 70 / 120 / 60

Mar

Low Latitudes

Stone Fruit (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.15 / 0.85

14.74

Deciduous orchard

30 / 50 / 130 / 30

Mar

California

Stone Fruit (active ground cover; no frost)

0.8 / 1.15 / 0.85

14.75

Citrus

60 / 90 / 120 / 95

Jan

Medit.

Citrus (no ground cover; 70% canopy)

0.7 / 0.65 / 0.7

14.76

Citrus

60 / 90 / 120 / 95

Jan

Medit.

Citrus (no ground cover; 50% canopy)

0.65 / 0.6 / 0.65

14.77

Citrus

60 / 90 / 120 / 95

Jan

Medit.

Citrus (no ground cover; 20% canopy)

0.5 / 0.45 / 0.55

14.78

Citrus

60 / 90 / 120 / 95

Jan

Medit.

Citrus (active ground cover; 70% canopy)

0.75 / 0.7 / 0.75

14.79

Citrus

60 / 90 / 120 / 95

Jan

Medit.

Citrus (active ground cover; 50% canopy)

0.8 / 0.8 / 0.8

14.80

Citrus

60 / 90 / 120 / 95

Jan

Medit.

Citrus (active ground cover; 20% canopy)

0.85 / 0.85 / 0.85

14.81

Olives

30 / 90 / 60 / 90

Mar

Medit.

Olives (40 to 60% ground coverage by canopy)

0.65 / 0.7 / 0.7

14.82

Pistachios

20 / 60 / 30 / 40

Feb

Medit.

Pistachios (no ground cover)

0.4 / 1.1 / 0.45

14.83

Walnuts

20 / 10 / 130 / 30

Apr

Utah

Walnut orchard

0.5 / 1.1 / 0.65

15.0

Wetlands (cattails; bulrush)

10 / 30 / 80 / 20

May

Utah

Cattails (killing frost)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.3

15.1

Wetlands (cattails; bulrush)

180 / 60 / 90 / 35

Nov

Florida

Cattails (no frost)

0.6 / 1.2 / 0.6

15.2

Wetlands (cattails; bulrush)

10 / 30 / 80 / 20

May

Utah

Bulrush (killing frost)

0.3 / 1.2 / 0.3

15.3

Wetlands (cattails; bulrush)

180 / 60 / 90 / 35

Nov

Florida

Bulrush (no frost)

0.6 / 1.2 / 0.6

15.4

Wetlands (short vegetation)

180 / 60 / 90 / 35

Nov

Frost-free Climate

Short vegetation (no frost)

1.05 / 1.1 / 1.1

Crop Growth Stages

This section provides the listing of all supported growth stages for each crop growth model.

Barley

Stage ID Stage Name Stage - Long Description

0.5

0.5 - Emergence

The first leaf is at half of its final length.

1.0

1.0 - 1 Leaf

Leaf 1 is fully extended, and in its rolled part, the second leaf can just be seen.

2.0

2.0 - 2 Leaves

Leaf 2 is fully extended, and in its rolled part, the third leaf can just be seen.

3.0

3.0 - 3 Leaves

Leaf 3 is fully extended, and in its rolled part, the fourth leaf can just be seen. Tillers begin to emerge.

4.0

4.0 - 4 Leaves

Leaf 4 is fully extended, and in its rolled part, the fifth leaf can just be seen.

5.0

5.0 - 5 Leaves

Leaf 5 is fully extended, and in its rolled part, the sixth leaf can just be seen. Tillering ends.

6.0

6.0 - 6 Leaves

Leaf 6 is fully extended, and in its rolled part, the seventh leaf can just be seen.

7.0

7.0 - 7 Leaves

Leaf 7 is fully extended, and in its rolled part, the eighth leaf can just be seen.

8.0

8.0 - Flag Leaf Emerged

The collar of the flag leaf (leaf 8) can be seen. Lengthening of the flag leaf stem begins.

9.0

9.0 - Boot Swelling Begins

The flag leaf stem has increased in length, raising the flag leaf above the previous leaf. Awns are just coming out of the boot.

9.5

9.5 - Mid Boot

The head is half emerged and flowering begins.

10.0

10.0 - Head Emerged

The head has cleared the flag leaf collar and flowering ends. Lengthening of the head stem begins.

11.0

11.0 - Heading Complete

Lengthening of the head stem ends.

11.5

11.5 - Kernel Watery Ripe

Kernel width and length are set; not much dry matter has accumulated.

13.0

13.0 - Soft Dough

Kernel content is soft and dry; fingernail imprint does not stay.

15.0

15.0 - Physiological Maturity

Dry weight of the kernels stops increasing.

Canola

Stage ID Stage Name Stage - Long Description

S

Emergence

Emergence occurs when the seedling pushes through the soil surface.

R3

Rosette - 3rd Leaf

A rosette is formed: bigger, older leaves at the base and smaller, younger leaves in the center.

R4

Rosette - 4th Leaf

Stem thickness increases but stem length changes very little.

EB

Early Bud

In the center of the rosette, a group of lengthening (bolting) flower buds can be seen.

LB

Late Bud

Buds produce secondary branches which develop one to four leaves and a group of flower buds.

EF

Early Flower

The opening of the lowest bud on the main stem indicates the start of flowering.

LF

Late Flower

About half of the flowers that open will produce pods.

ER

Early Ripening

The ripening process starts when the petals of the last produced flower (on the main stem) drop.

R

Ripe

About one third of the seeds on the main stem have changed color; the crop is ready to swath.

Corn

Stage ID Stage Name Stage - Long Description

ve

VE - Emergence

The seedling pushes through the soil surface. With optimum soil moisture and temperature, corn plants can emerge within a week after planting.

v1

V1 - 1 Leaf

The plant has one leaf with a visible collar, although more leaves are visible. The tip of this first leaf is oval - the others are more pointed. The growing point is below the soil surface.

v3

V3 - 3 Leaves

The plant has three leaves with visible collars. The stalk hasn’t increased much in length. The growing point is still below the surface.

v6

V6 - 6 Leaves

The plant has six leaves with visible collars. The growing point extends above the soil surface around this time, making the plant more susceptible to a killing frost.

v9

V9 - 9 Leaves

The plant has nine leaves with visible collars, although the lowest leaves may no longer be present. The growing point continues to move upward.

vt

VT - Tasseling

All branches of the tassel are fully visible. Plants will not grow much taller. Silking is only a few days away, depending on hybrid and moisture conditions.

r2

R2 - Blister

Kernels look like blisters and are ivory colored on the outside. The liquid inside is clear. The ear has reached its maximum length.

r3

R3 - Milk

Kernels are yellow on the outside. The liquid inside has turned milky white because of increasing starch content. Silks are brown and drying out.

r4

R4 - Dough

Kernels are deep yellow on the outside. The milky liquid inside the kernels thickens, becoming pasty and doughy, because of increasing starch content.

r5

R5 - Dent

Kernels are dented because of decreasing moisture content and increasing starch content. A hard layer of starch starts to form in the kernels.

r6

R6 - Physiological Maturity

A black layer forms at the base of the kernels blocking further dry matter accumulation. All starch in the kernels has hardened at this time.

Cotton

Stage ID Stage Name Stage - Long Description

v1.0

Emergence

Emergence occurs when the seedling pushes through the soil surface.

v2.0

First Square

The first squares (flower buds) are visible. Typically, less than 50% of all squares produce mature bolls.

v3.0

First Flowers

The first flowers are visible. A flower is pollinated on the first day it is open (white bloom stage) and turns pink or red the next day.

v4.0

Peak Blooming

Cotton has an indeterminate growth habit: flowering (blooming) will continue unless terminated by frost, drought, full boll load, insect attack, etc.

v5.0

First Open Boll

The first bolls open (mature). Not every boll will reach maturity - if not enough of the ovules are fertilized, the boll will drop a week or more after flowering.

v7.0

60% Open Boll

Sixty percent of bolls have opened. Harvest aid chemicals can change the time needed to open bolls by few days.

Peanut

Stage ID Stage Name Stage - Long Description

VE

Emergence

Emergence occurs when the seedling pushes through the soil surface.

V1

V1 - 1 Tetrafoliate

Plants have one set of unfolded tetrafoliate leaves.

Vn

Vn - n Tetrafoliates

Plants have n sets of unfolded tetrafoliate leaves.

R1

R1 - First Flower

Plants have at least one flower.

R2

R2 - First Peg

Plants have at least one elongated peg (gynophore).

R3

R3 - First Pod

Plants have at least one peg in the soil with turned, swollen ovary at least twice the width of the peg.

R5

R5 - First Seed

Plants have at least one fully-expanded pod with seeds beginning to grow.

R8

R8 - Harvest Maturity

Peanut crop is ready for harvest.

Potato

Stage ID Stage Name Stage - Long Description

1

Emergence

Emergence occurs when the seedling pushes through the soil surface.

2

Tuber Initiation

Plants have one tuber with a diameter of 1 cm or greater.

3

Beginning Senescence

The first leaves are yellowing.

4

Harvest

Plants are completely dead; potatoes are harvest ready.

Sorghum

Stage ID Stage Name Stage - Long Description

1

Emergence

Emergence occurs when the seedling pushes through the soil surface. The time between planting and emergence depends on soil temperature, residue cover and distribution, soil moisture, planting depth, and seed vigor.

2

3 Leaves

Three leaves are fully expanded with a visible collar. The growing point is under the soil surface.

3

4 Leaves

Four leaves are fully expanded with a visible collar. The growing point is under the soil surface.

4

5 Leaves

Five leaves are fully expanded with a visible collar. The growing point is under the soil surface. The plant begins a rapid growth and nutrient accumulation phase. The root system is expanding rapidly.

5

Panicle (Head) Initiation

Potential leaf number is defined. Maximum plant growth and nutrient uptake rates are achieved. The growing point is above the surface and changes from producing leaves to forming heads.

6

Flag Leaf Visible

The final leaf (flag leaf) is visible in the whorl. Rapid stem elongation and increases in leaf area occur at this stage.

7

Boot

The head has extended into the flag leaf sheath. Maximum leaf area has been achieved. Maximum potential head size and seed number has been set. The upper stalk (the peduncle) begins to elongate.

8

Heading

The head (panicle) emerges from the final (flag) leaf. Heads are visible on 50 percent of the plants in the field.

9

Flowering

Flowering typically begins when yellow anthers appear at the tip 5 to 7 days after head (panicle) exertion. Over the next 4 to 9 days, anthers appear incrementally and develop down the panicle.

10

Soft Dough

Kernels are soft with little or no liquid present when squeezed. Grain fills rapidly. The stem loses weight due to a remobilization process (from stem to grain).

11

Hard Dough

Kernels are hard when squeezed. Grain reaches 75% of its final dry weight and nutrient uptake is almost complete. Lower leaves lose functionality due to remobilization of nutrients to grain or senescence.

12

Physiological Maturity

Grain achieves its maximum dry weight. Mature grain is identified by looking for the dark spot, the black layer, on the bottom of the kernel. Grain moisture ranges from 25 to 35%.

Soybean

Stage ID Stage Name Stage - Long Description

RA

RA - Radicle Appearance

The radicle (primary root) is appearing from the seed. Shortly after radicle appearance, the seed’s hypocotyl starts to grow toward the soil surface.

VE

VE - Emergence

Emergence occurs when the seedling pushes through the soil surface.

VC

VC - Unifoliate

Plants have a completely unrolled leaf at the unifoliate node.

V1

V1 - 1 Trifoliate

Plants have one set of unfolded trifoliate leaves.

Vn

Vn - n Trifoliates

Plants have n sets of unfolded trifoliate leaves.

R1

R1 - First Flower

Plants have at least one flower at any node on the plant.

R2

R2 - Full Flowering

Plants have an open flower at one of the two uppermost nodes on the main stem with a fully developed trifoliate leaf node.

R3

R3 - First Pod

Plants have at least one pod that is 5 mm (0.2 inch) long, and ready to grow.

R3.5

R3.5 - Mid Pod Elongation

Plants have at least one pod that is 10–12 mm (a little less than half an inch) long.

R4

R4 - Full Pod

Plants have at least one fully expanded pod.

R5

R5 - First Seed

Plants have pods with seeds beginning to grow.

R6

R6 - Full Seed

Plants have at least one pod containing a full-sized green seed.

R7

R7 - Physiological Maturity

Plants have at least one pod that is yellowing.

R8

R8 - Harvest Maturity

Plants have at least 95 percent of pods that are brown.

Spring Wheat

Stage (Haun) Stage (Zadoks) Stage (Feekes) Stage ID Stage Name Stage - Long Description

0.5

10

1

101

Emergence

The first leaf is at half of its final length.

1.0

11

1.1

102

1 Leaf

Leaf 1 is fully extended, and in its rolled part, the second leaf can just be seen.

2.0

12

1.2

103

2 Leaves

Leaf 2 is fully extended, and in its rolled part, the third leaf can just be seen. Tillering is initiated.

3.0

13

2

104

3 Leaves

Leaf 3 is fully extended, and in its rolled part, the fourth leaf can just be seen.

4.0

14

n/a

105

4 Leaves

Leaf 4 is fully extended, and in its rolled part, the fifth leaf can just be seen. Tillers are visible.

5.0

30

4-5

106

5 Leaves

Leaf 5 is fully extended, and in its rolled part, the sixth leaf can just be seen. Tillering ends.

n/a

31

6

107

6th Leaf Emerged

The sixth leaf has emerged. Stem extension begins.

6.0

n/a

n/a

108

6 Leaves

Leaf 6 is fully extended, and in its rolled part, the seventh leaf can just be seen.

n/a

32

7

109

7th Leaf Emerged

The seventh leaf has emerged.

7.0

n/a

n/a

110

7 Leaves

Leaf 7 is fully extended, and in its rolled part, the eighth leaf can just be seen.

7.5

3

8

111

Flag Leaf Emerging

The flag leaf (leaf 8) is emerging.

8.0

39

9

112

Flag Leaf Emerged

The collar of the flag leaf (leaf 8) can be seen; the flag leaf is fully developed now.

9.0

43

n/a

113

Boot Swelling Begins

The flag leaf stem increases in length, raising the flag leaf above the previous leaf.

10.0

45

10

114

Boot Swollen

Awns can be observed at the collar of the flag leaf; booting ends.

10.1

49

n/a

115

Awns Emerging

Awns are emerging.

11.0

59

10.5

116

Head Emerged

The head has entirely cleared the flag leaf collar; the head stem continues to grow.

11.4

61

10.51

117

Flowering Begins

Flowering starts in the center of the head, and then advances towards the top and the bottom of the head at the same time.

11.6

69

10.53

118

Flowering Complete

Flowering ends and kernel development begins.

12.1

71

10.54

119

Kernel Watery Ripe

Kernel width and length are set; not much dry matter has accumulated.

15.0

87

n/a

120

Hard Dough

The crop is nearing physiological maturity; kernel development is about to end.

15.6

92

11.3

121

Physiological Maturity

Kernels are hard, but a fingernail can still make an imprint. Plants have lost all green color.

Sugarbeet

Stage ID Stage Name Stage - Long Description

v1.0

Emergence

Emergence occurs when the seedling pushes through the soil surface.

v2.0

2 Leaves

Two true leaves have unfolded and there is no sign of the next leaf stage. These first two leaves develop at the same time.

v3.0

3 Leaves

Three true leaves have unfolded and there is no sign of the next leaf stage.

v4.0

4 leaves

Four true leaves have unfolded and there is no sign of the next leaf stage.

v5.0

5 Leaves

Five true leaves have unfolded and there is no sign of the next leaf stage.

v6.0

6 Leaves

Six true leaves have unfolded and there is no sign of the next leaf stage.

v7.0

7 Leaves

Seven true leaves have unfolded and there is no sign of the next leaf stage.

v8.0

8 Leaves

Eight true leaves have unfolded and there is no sign of the next leaf stage.

v9.0

9 Leaves

Nine true leaves have unfolded and there is no sign of the next leaf stage.

v10.0

10 Leaves

Ten true leaves have unfolded and there is no sign of the next leaf stage.

Sunflower

Stage ID Stage Name Stage - Long Description

1

VE - Emergence

Emergence occurs when the seedling pushes through the soil surface.

3

V2 - 2 Leaves

The plant has 2 true leaves of 4 cm (1.6 inch) or longer.

6

V5 - 5 Leaves

The plant has 5 true leaves of 4 cm (1.6 inch) or longer.

9

V8 - 8 Leaves

The plant has 8 true leaves of 4 cm (1.6 inch) or longer.

12

V11 - 11 Leaves

The plant has 11 true leaves of 4 cm (1.6 inch) or longer.

15

V14 - 14 Leaves

The plant has 14 true leaves of 4 cm (1.6 inch) or longer.

18

V17 - 17 Leaves

The plant has 17 true leaves of 4 cm (1.6 inch) or longer.

22

R1 - Miniature Terminal Bud

The bud forms a miniature floral head. From above, the bracts look like a star with many points.

23

R2 - Bud < 2 cm From Leaf

The distance between bud and nearest leaf (attached to the stem) is less than 2 cm (0.8 inch). Don’t consider leaves attached directly to the back of the bud.

24

R3 - Bud > 2 cm From Leaf

The distance between bud and nearest leaf has increased to more than 2 cm (0.8 inch).

25

R4 - Bud Open

The bud begins to open. Ray flowers can be seen when looked at from above.

26

R5.1 - Early Flower

Ten percent of the head area (disk flowers) is flowering or has finished flowering.

27

R5.5 - 50% Flowered

Fifty percent of the head area (disk flowers) is flowering or has finished flowering.

28

R6 - Flowering Complete

Flowering ends; ray flowers are wilting.

29

R7 - Head Back: Pale Yellow

The back of the head has started to become light (pale) yellow.

30

R8 - Head Back: Yellow

The back of the head is yellow; the bracts are still green.

31

R9 - Physiological Maturity

The back of the head is brown; the bracts turn yellow/brown.

Winter Wheat

Stage (Haun) Stage (Zadoks) Stage (Feekes) Stage ID Stage Name Stage - Long Description

n/a

05

n/a

0

Germination

The radicle (primary root) is appearing from the seed.

0.1

10

1

1

Emergence

Emergence occurs when the seedling pushes through the soil surface.

1.9-2.7

21

2

2

First Tiller

The first tiller is visible.

n/a

n/a

n/a

3

Single Ridge

The shoot apex shape changes from dome to more elongated, and leaf primordia begin to form a ridge around the apex.

n/a

n/a

n/a

4

Double Ridge

The formation of double ridges (bottom ridge = leaf, top ridge = spikelet) around the apex occurs.

n/a

n/a

n/a

5

Flower Primordium

Flower primordium initiation begins.

4.3

30

4

6

Stem Elongation Begins

The first internode within the crown begins to elongate. Spikelet initiation ends.

4.6

31

6

7

Jointing

The first joint (node) is visible above the soil surface. Plant growth changes from prostrate to upright.

6.0-7.0

39

9

8

Booting / Flag Leaf Complete

The flag leaf is fully developed; the flag leaf collar can be seen.

n/a

50

10.1

9

Heading

The first spikelet of the head is visible above the flag leaf collar, or it is coming out the side of the flag leaf sheath.

n/a

61

10.5.1

10

Flowering Begins

Flowering (anthesis) starts in the center of the head, and then advances towards the top and the bottom of the head at the same time.

n/a

69

10.5.4

11

Flowering Complete

Flowering (anthesis) ends and kernel development begins.

n/a

92

11.3

12

Physiological Maturity

Dry weight of the kernel stops increasing. Spike and peduncle have lost their green color entirely.

n/a

93

11.4

13

Harvest Ready

The grain has dried after physiological maturity. The wheat crop is ready to be harvested.

Parameter Units - Crop Growth and Health

Below is a listing of weather parameter units that appear in the Crop Growth and Health API endpoints, including a description of each and a listing of the associated parameter types.

System of units Parameter unit What it stands for Associated parameters

US-std

F

Degrees Fahrenheit

temperature, dew point temperature

SI-std

C

Degrees Celsius

temperature, dew point temperature

US-std & SI-std

%

Percent

cloud cover, forecast confidence, relative humidity

US-std

In

Inch

precipitation accumulation, potential evapotranspiration

SI-std

mm

Millimeter

precipitation accumulation, potential evapotranspiration

US-std

mb

Millibar

atmospheric pressure

SI-std

Pa

Pascal

atmospheric pressure

US-std

mi

Mile

visibility

SI-std

km

Kilometer

visibility

US-std & SI-std

degree

Degree

wind direction

US-std

mph

Miles per Hour

wind speed, wind gust

SI-std

kph

Kilometers per Hour

wind speed, wind gust

US-std & SI-std

W/m^2

Watts per Square Meter

longwave radiation, shortwave radiation

US-std & SI-std

dBZ

Decibel

radar reflectivity

Changelog

This section describes document changes occurring in the two most recent versions.